Time Internet applications it

In the early 90s, Steve jobs was the main attraction of the annual conferences of the Object World. His performances were always special, and the NeXT was the leader in object-oriented technology – but in 1995 Steve and NeXT have outdone themselves.

It is not known what thoughts arose among the participants of the conference Object World 1995, after the speech of Steve jobs. What he said was still in the future. Today, all that he predicted came true. Klondike turned out to be exactly where it was predicted.

Not true only one thing: profits from the operation of this Klondike got the other. NeXT became part of Apple, and, in fact, fizzled. Now we know for sure: this way promised the pioneers more than they seemed in the beginning. The question arises: “why would Steve even need Apple?”

It is considered that the NeXT draft was completely hopeless, Steve conned her from Amelio and Apple’s Board of Directors 429 million dollars for a failing company. Doesn’t add up.

The NeXT path from the past to the future looked so promising that it was breathtaking. Field distortion of reality, existing through time? Or actually they managed to find the way to the top, and stayed not stray from this path?

In 1994, NeXT ceased to be unprofitable. The company was brought into her account 50 million dollars, which, for the first time in company history, exceeded its expenses. For one million dollars.

In 1994, NeXT entered the top hundred companies-software developers, finishing in 67th place. Steve jobs called his company the “fastest growing” in the hundreds.

The only thing you can check is the 67-th place, all the rest of what Steve said about the situation NeXT check could only to himself.

But, with the exception of critical situations, jobs never stooped to outright lies, and in 1995 the NeXT existence is not threatened. Except, perhaps, the success of Pixar.

What is said Steve jobs at the conference Object World in 1995?

The main directions of development of the NeXT Software in the coming years. Such areas were three.

OPENSTEP for Windows

In 1995, OPENSTEP (object-oriented NeXTSTEP layer) was used in UNIX from HP, Sun and Digital, its success was obvious. OPENSTEP was the best in its class, and almost the only other promising object-oriented platform in 1995 had either been done or was canceled.

Real competitors could not appear, the NeXT one would seize the moment and expand the bridgehead. UNIX you it is important and prestigious, but the most popular platform is Microsoft Windows.

It turned out that the NeXT is already working on OPENSTEP for Windows NT and Windows 95, and now will release this product on the market. NeXT gets a new source of revenue, users of Windows – new opportunities. Development environment, technology simplifies the application architecture client-server, EOF, and much more.

In OPENSTEP for Windows used the Windows user interface, the decision was taken at an early stage of development. Environment OPENSTEP was supposed to be his Windiows 95 and Windows NT, for that she had to look behave like Windows.

This is the first line of the three.


This distributed implementation of Object Linking and Embedding, Microsoft promised to 1997 – NeXT releases implementation of this technology on the market two years earlier than Microsoft.

Moreover, the D OLE is implemented according to the rules of NeXT, the most important of which is “to do simple simple, and the complex possible.” Technology D OLE in OPENSTEP will be available on NT and Windows 95, as well as all implementations for Unices.

D thanks OLE, the interaction with the service on the remote server will be reduced to be sent to the message server and to receive results, regardless of the actual nature of the service and its implementation.

I really wanted to call this new technology Distributed OLE, but in this case, Microsoft would have reason to go to court. DOLE (in English “mountain”, “SOP”, “grief”) also was not a good choice. Tried many options, staying on the D OLE. It looks aristocratic and mysterious.

Since D OLE are implemented in OPENSTEP and in the next version of the PDO, their uses are many – they can communicate a powerful workstation with Unix c Windows client a few Unix stations between several Windows machines and even entire networks consisting of computers of different platforms.

But OPENSTEP for Windows and D OLE – no more than warming up the audience for the main and really important messages. About the third direction.


In 1995, 99.9% of web pages were static. Global web was used only for Internet publishing. At first it was a miracle but it’s time for the next step.

NeXT connect with the web connected to. On one of the black magnesium cube of the first type, NeXT Computer with 68030 inside, Tim Berners-Lee wrote in 1989 and the first browser. In 1991, this browser worked in NeXTSTEP, the traces of which are preserved in the names of HTML tags.

But the server can not only publish pre-prepared pages. This is because the computer is capable of more.

The need for more was huge, and the first web applications have already appeared.

For example, on the website of FedEx, you can get information about the status and location of the parcel in the current time unit. The client opens a request form, enters the number of delivery and, over time, receives a report page generated for it, which a moment ago did not exist.

The application server queries the database (or the database), and generates the response, which is html and is sent to the user’s browser. Most of the work happens outside of the Internet – all with regard to user interaction with the server is quite primitive (in our current view).

But the state of the workbench is that the development of this system took four months of qualified work.

Another area is electronic Commerce. The user selects the catalog item, pays for it with a credit card, and gets delivered to your house. A similar system in 1995 were a rarity, their development cost a lot of money and required an unrealistic amount of time.

On the web applications for other, more complex and diverse tasks, in 1995 only dreamed of.

The one who will give (for reasonable compensation) to those who suffer tool that will turn these dreams into reality, can count not only on the gratitude of mankind, but also for very good money.

Development environment web-applications, it – a set of objects-cubes, transforming the typical problems in a child’s game, called WebObjects. In the fourth quarter of 1995 was promised its beta version, in the first quarter of 1996 release. Terms were sustained.

How was arranged WebObjects (or “organized”?), will tell in the sequel.

About the price of WebObjects

It is believed that an incredibly high price, appointed by Steve jobs in WebObjects, played a fatal role in the fate of this very good, for its time, complex software.

Pro license to embed in the network (deployment) Steve didn’t say anything. Perhaps he has not yet decided how much to take.

Development license, depending on level, cost is different.

The basic version (with serious limitations: the user could not, for example, to create your own subclasses of the “factory” classes, etc.) – cost $ 0 and 0 cents. If with its help it was possible to recreate the FedEx for a week, but as evidence I will allow myself to have some doubt.

The professional version cost 2 999 USD.

The Enterprise version, with a huge range of classes and predefined objects for task-level large enterprise, cost 24 $ 999.

A license for deployment were also multiple levels, and the most expensive of them cost 24 999 dollars. In this case, the license gave the right to accommodate ONE application.

From what we can draw two conclusions:

information in Wikipedia (English) that WenObjects was offered for 50 thousand dollars, is inaccurate. It would be better as “50 thousand”;
the price of WebObjects was unaffordable for the vast majority of potential customers.

But in 1996-97 from WebObjects competitors was not…

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