Split QuickTime into atoms

In the previous episodes of the series, I was complimenting the format of the QuickTime files. The format deserves, but epithets in our days, almost nothing. So I decided to talk about how this format works.

Previous series: the beginning and the continuation.

One of the key challenges posed by technology were the desacralization of the media. Something sublimely futuristic it should turn into a regular data type. And in another file format that could be used in any system, any computer platform, “in the present and the future.”

The problem is simple. The design file must provide storage and rapid retrieval of data with the data of unknown type and size. The data may be stored outside of the file, it is necessary to provide a generic mechanism for referencing data in the file system.

Freedom (the real) is provided by clearly defined rules and rigid basic structure of a technical device or companies. In societies this role is played by the set of laws, designed and tested reality that are strictly and precisely. Because it is only what is not, all the identify “bugs” should immediately take “the work”, to be studied and corrected. But I digress.

File format QuickTime provides the maximum (full) freedom for data to be placed in it. Data liberation is easier than the freedom of society, therefore, its basic principles can be incorporated at the design stage. The format has stood the test of time, although it had to make changes. It happened once in the nearly 30 years of existence technology.

The world has changed. In 1990, no one could imagine that someday there will be files larger than 4 gigabytes. Not sure that this is a reason for pride, but this barrier the world has successfully overcome. In QTFF increasingly began to try to shove the data volume of 5 or 6 gigabytes. Anything good from this did not, and stood up angry howl all over the Internet.

In the end, in the format QTFF QuickTime and there has been a slight change. Compatibility updated the format with the old absolute.

If data will be closely 18.4 eksabyte (maximum addressable space for 64-bit addressing), QTFF less. Exabyte is a million terabytes, 10 in the 18-th degree of the bytes. As far as I know, the volume of the largest banks in the world data is measured in petabytes (that’s 10 to the 15th degree of bytes) could be in the tens of petabytes. Up to 18 exabytes is still very far away.

Details? If you are interested, I’m proud of you.

Structure QTFF

File-terrain vehicle is made of… atoms. The developers of the format called the individual pieces of data (chunks, speaking in Russian) atoms. In QTFF atom may consist of either data or other atoms. In physics, atoms arranged differently, but digital technologies – other worlds. The laws established by the Creator. In addition, the atom in QTFF – term only. In my opinion, successful.

By the way, the creators of QTFF, and physicists, the term “atom” is contrary to the meaning of the word from which it originated. From the ancient Greek word “atom” means “indivisible”.

Each type of atoms with a unique identifier, denoted by a special data type, which in its homeland is called OSType, and beyond – FOURCC.

The description of the type and its history below dedicated a whole section, but if you do not go into the details, this is a Janus among the data types. This is both an integer without a sign, of size 32 bits, and a 4-character mnemonics.

Here’s the abstract structure of QTFF file (given mnemonics types of atoms):

File QTFF also possible to consider the atom: consists of two atoms, ‘moov’ and ‘mdat’. The most important of them is ‘moov’. It consists of an atom header, and one or more tracks. The path can be represented by very different data: video, audio, effects, text, and anything at all.

Let mnemonics ‘moov’ I will not mislead you – it’s not just video or audio, it can be absolutely any synced data. The results of the study on the polygraph (suspect or laboratory), the tracking of some object in nature, whatever.

It’s fixed in the file processes by binding them to a common time scale. The presentation of data in the track and their interpretation – care codec’s. (Code-Decode).

Naturally, neither QuickTime Player or other standard tools for the user about these options, QTFF completely unaware of. To work with these highly specialized data required a considerable effort of programmers QuickTime provided the only convenient file structure and the API set (interface programmer’s applications, functions, data structures, constants) to create, edit, and playback QTFF.

Unfortunately, this promising area has been lost leadership to Apple and in different areas of human activity having its own format and set of APIs for working with them. I worked with QuickTime exclusively in the area of its typical applications (audio, video, conversion, graphics and video formats), but others use QuickTime they are in no way inferior to specialized solutions. Just about this side QuickTime few people knew.

Track (‘trak’) atom of a hierarchy. And what is contained in square brackets, can be absolutely any complexity and structure combinations of atoms. If the operating system where “is” comes from the outside, the file is not installed codec to work with paths of a certain type, it will not be executed. If you do not understand all of the tracks, open the file will fail with an error message.

Memory has long enough to install the system codec’s hundred, for a variety of media options.

FOURCC

Funny, but true: this type of data in the network information above the roof. Only if you don’t know how it was actually, there is a strong belief that FOURCC invented Microsoft. Sometimes (often), in passing, mentioned Apple using this data type in QuickTime. Stolen, probably, from Microsoft.

However, the process of oblivion has not yet gone too far, and Microsoft has long been not the same. My message about this type of data is not the only one. In the English Wikipedia, for example, the data type is described pretty well (though not as detailed as I like).

FOURCC stands for “Four Characters of the Code”. Used as an identifier for many different purposes, in different file formats and software.

At its core is a 4-byte number with the value range from 0 to 4,294,967,295. But it’s for your computer. It is easier to work with numbers.

Have FOURCC and a “human” face. For people (programmers and the other is dedicated) is a combination of 4 symbols, mnemonic designation of the object type. Mnemonics for human the numbers.

For example, ‘trak’, or ‘mdat’.

FOURCC first appeared (not to speak about such a trifle “invented”) in 1982 or 1983 on the Apple, the team developed Mac. On a Mac this data type is called OSType, they designated types of files, resources, and similar objects, many of which macOS anymore. According to the wiki, OSType appeared in 1984, along with Mac’om.

In 1985 the company Electronic Arts used the FOURCC in the IFF (Interchange File Format), a format designed for use on the Amiga Commodore a canadian company, as a tag to designate data types.

Microsoft first used this format in the early 90s, RIFF, its own implementation of Amiga IFF for Intel. The byte order to Intel and Motorola different, little – and big-endian.

The structure of the atom

Before the introduction of QuickTime support for 64-bit architectures, in QTFF atoms were arranged just so:

Bytes 0-3 atom size 4 bytes size 4 bytes type designation;
Bytes 4-7 atom type, FOURCC;
Bytes 8..n data

Please note: even if the atom zero-length data, the size value is 8, it is important for the following discussion.

To support a data volume of more than 4 gigabytes was designed by the atoms:

Bytes 0-3 always 0x00000001;
Bytes 4-7 atom type, FOURCC;
Bytes 8-15 of the size of the atom plus 16 bytes of header;
Bytes 16..n data.

32-bit atoms never starts with 0x00000001, and so to alter the old files is not necessary.

In addition to 0x00000001, the value of the first 4 bytes may be 0x00000000, which means “atom occupies the entire remainder of the file”. The size of the atom in such cases does not matter.

If data will not fit in 18 exabytes will become a reality, there will be atoms “generation 0x00000002”.

In the sequel, the answer to the question “why Apple needed QuickTime for Windows?”

0 Comments on “Split QuickTime into atoms”

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    The Jewish people deny Jesus as their Messiah and have stated that their Messiah has been identified and is waiting to be revealed They say this man will rule the world under a one world religion called “spiritualism”

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    Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards Otherwise, we could still buy or sell without the mark amongst others if physical money was still currency RFID microchip implant technology will be the future of a one world cashless society containing digital currency It will be implanted in the right-hand or the forehead, and we cannot buy or sell without it! We must grow strong in Jesus AT ALL COSTS, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name ” (Revelation 14:9-11)

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  2. Hey, how’s it going?

    I want to pass along some very important news that everyone needs to hear!

    In December of 2017, Donald Trump made history by recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel Why is this big news? Because by this the Jewish people of Israel are now able to press forward in bringing about the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible

    Jewish Rabbis have publicly announced that their Messiah will be revealed in the coming years who will be a leader and spiritual guide to all nations, gathering all religions under the worship of one God

    Biblical prophecy tells us that this Jewish Messiah who will take the stage will be the antichrist “who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God” (2 Thessalonians 2:4) For a time he will bring about a false peace, but “Therefore when you see the ‘abomination of desolation,’ spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (Matthew 24:15) then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matthew 24:21)

    More importantly, the power that runs the world wants to put a RFID microchip in our body making us total slaves to them This chip matches perfectly with the Mark of the Beast in the Bible, more specifically in Revelation 13:16-18:

    “He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name

    Here is wisdom Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666 ”

    Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards Otherwise, we could still buy or sell without the mark amongst others if physical money was still currency This Mark couldn’t be spiritual because the word references two different physical locations If it was spiritual it would just say in the forehead RFID microchip implant technology will be the future of a one world cashless society containing digital currency It will be implanted in the right-hand or the forehead, and we cannot buy or sell without it Revelation 13:11-18 tells us that a false prophet will arise on the world scene doing miracles before men, deceiving them to receive this Mark Do not be deceived! We must grow strong in Jesus AT ALL COSTS, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    “Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name” (Revelation 14:9-11)

    People have been saying the end is coming for many years, but we needed two key things One, the Third Temple, and two, the technology for a cashless society to fulfill the prophecy of the Mark of the Beast

    Visit WWW BIBLEFREEDOM COM to see proof for these things and why the Bible truly is the word of God!

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    “EITHER HUMAN INTELLIGENCE ULTIMATELY OWES ITS ORIGIN TO MINDLESS MATTER OR THERE IS A CREATOR ” – JOHN LENNOX

    We all know God exists Why? Because without Him, we couldn’t prove anything at all Do we live our lives as if we cannot know anything? No So why is God necessary? In order to know anything for certain, you would have to know everything, or have revelation from somebody who does Who is capable of knowing everything? God So to know anything, you would have to be God, or know God

    A worldview without God cannot account for the uniformity and intelligibility of nature And why is it that we can even reason that God is the best explanation for this if there is no God? We are given reason to know or reject God, but never to know that He does not exist

    It has been calculated by Roger Penrose that the odds of the initial conditions for the big bang to produce the universe that we see to be a number so big, that we could put a zero on every particle in the universe, and even that would not be enough to use every zero What are the odds that God created the universe? Odds are no such thing Who of you would gamble your life on one coin flip?

    Is there evidence that the Bible is the truth? Yes Did you know that the creation accounts listed in the book of Genesis are not only all correct, but are also in the correct chronological order? That the Bible doesn’t say the Earth was formed in six 24-hour days but rather six long but finite periods of time? That the Bible makes 10 times more creation claims than all major “holy” books combined with no contradictions, while these other books have errors in them? The Bible stood alone by concurring with the big bang saying, “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” (Genesis 1:1); and says our universe is expanding, thousands of years before scientists discovered these things Watch a potential life-changing video on the front page of WWW BIBLEFREEDOM COM with Astronomer(PhD) Hugh Ross explaining all these facts based on published scientific data He has authored many books, backed even by atheist scientists

    Jesus came to pay a debt that we could not; to be our legal justifier to reconcile us back to a Holy God; only if we are willing to receive Him: “For the wages of sin is death ” (Romans 6:23)

    God so loved the world that He gave us His only begotten son, so that whoever believes in Him, through faith, shall not perish, but have everlasting life Jesus says if we wish to enter into life to keep the commands! The two greatest commands are to love God with all your heart, soul, strength, and mind; and your neighbor as yourself All the law hang on these commands We must be born of and lead by the Holy Spirit, to be called children of God, to inherit the kingdom If we are willing to humble ourselves in prayer to Jesus, to confess and forsake our sins, He is willing to give the Holy Spirit to those who keep asking of Him; giving us a new heart, leading us into all truth!

    Jesus came to free us from the bondage of sin The everlasting fire was prepared for the devil and his angels due to disobedience to God’s law If we do the same, what makes us any different than the devil? Jesus says unless we repent, we shall perish For sin is the transgression of the law We must walk in the Spirit so we may not fulfill the lusts of the flesh, being hatred, fornication, drunkenness and the like Whoever practices such things will not inherit the kingdom (Galatians 5:16-26) If we sin, we may come before Jesus to ask for forgiveness (1 John 2:1-2) Evil thoughts are not sins, but rather temptations It is not until these thoughts conceive and give birth by our own desires that they become sin (James 1:12-15) When we sin, we become in the likeness of the devil’s image, for he who sins is of the devil (1 John 3:8); but if we obey Jesus, in the image of God For without holiness, we shall not see the Lord (Hebrews 12:14)

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