How to look for exoplanets orbiting cool stars?

Some of the most common objects in the Universe are stars — red dwarfs or M stars. Despite its color, red dwarfs emit red and yellow light, the intensity of which sometimes 10,000 times smaller than the brightness of the Sun. Because of this unfamiliar to us the properties of potentially habitable worlds orbiting stars M-type, should be at a relatively small distance from its star, which significantly reduces the number of found human exoplanets, which can live a hypothetical life. However, close to the star location makes the atmosphere of the exoplanet completely unprotected due to the fact that red dwarfs often have a very violent temper, periodically exploding the strongest flares and literally blowing off all the air envelope of nearby exoplanets.

The landscape of extrasolar planets an artist’s concept of

One of the nearest stars M-type to our Solar system is the star Proxima Centauri, the size of which is approximately ⅛ the size of the Sun. In the habitable zone of the exoplanet rotates the star Proxima Centauri b, the average surface temperature of which is about -39 degrees Celsius. Due to the fact that the planet receives ten times more x-ray radiation, a hypothetical life that live on the planet, will have to develop the capacity for biological fluorescence, which can act as a protective mechanism in the flashes of ultraviolet radiation. Despite such optimistic forecasts, scientists are increasingly inclined to believe that the surface of Proxima b is a parched desert, like Mars due to the fact that the frequent flashes of x-ray radiation capable of vaporizing any ocean or even the atmosphere of exoplanets.

Hypothetical view from the surface of Proxima Centauri b

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Planets orbiting red dwarfs

As the portal nasa.govdiscovered last year, the TESS telescope planet LHS 3844b located at 48.6 light years from the Sun and has a large 1.3 times the size compared to our planet. Distant world revolves around a small M-dwarf and is notable for the fact that he was able to give scientists the first idea about how it can look like a planet-companion red dwarf. Found by NASA Spitzer telescope, the object is a rocky planet with a surface resembling the surface of mercury or the moon. So, the planet is almost devoid of any atmosphere and may be covered by the same volcanic material which in large quantities is in dark areas of the moon called seas.

Planet LHS 3844b situated at 48.6 light years from Earth, can kind of be like the moon or mercury

Planet LHS 3844b is not the only world, which was discovered close to the cold stars are M-class. Due to the fact that the majority of planets located near the red stars can be tidal locked worlds,planets with the red stars can be forever turned to its Sun is only on one side. As many readers of our official Hi-News channel in the Telegram can know a more convenient location easily turning the planet into a world on the illuminated side which shall reign the eternal day with high temperatures, while the shadow side of the planet will become a frozen desert, over which never the Sun will rise.

The star is a red dwarf and its planet-satellite

One of the planets permanently facing only one side to its star may become a planet system of Gliese 1061, which is in the habitable zone of the star. Discovered in 2018, exoplanet gets the same amount of heat as the Earth receives from the Sun, suggesting a possible presence on the surface of liquid water. In any case, an international team of astronomers made the discovery using the ESO telescope, thinks that this star system will be one of the priority objectives for future study when using next generation devices such as the telescope James Webb.

In other words, the question of how can there be a habitable planet near a red dwarf, can be solved in the coming decades.

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