Classic AppleWorks: cut&paste, desktop and main menu

Despite the microscopic by today’s standards the size of AppleWorks for the Apple II, is a large and complex program. A separate platform, for which he wrote the program.

From this place in the text and at the end of it refers to AppleWorks “AppleWorks for the Apple II”. About why the title is called Classic AppleWorks AppleWorks, see the previous section.

And now I will answer for his words, as “a chance to be a leader”, “the creation” and other expressions sublime style make it mandatory. We have something to compare.

Minimum system requirements the first version of the program is not impressive: it was compatible with the Apple IIe and Apple IIc. In both cases, unpacking a brand-new Apple II and include it in a network was not enough.

On the Apple IIe required:

  • set up fee support 80-character screen;
  • to have at least one floppy disk drive connected to the extension slot number 6;
  • to install the extension with the system clock in slot 2 or 4;
  • to connect the monitor.

The Apple IIc had to connect the monitor. And that’s all.

In the computer press in those days readers actively assured that Apple IIc, Apple announced the next step in the platform development, not only no better than the IIe, but even worse. Now we have a right to their own opinion on the matter.

The programme managed to work with 64 kilobytes of RAM (basic for the Apple IIe), but it is strongly recommended that 128 kilobytes.

In addition, all floppy disks used to operate the program, was supposed to be in ProDOS format. Floppy older formats AppleWorks recognized as “empty” and offered them to format.

This is a reflection of the dramatic events: in October 1983, Apple Computer announced the release of a new operating system for Apple II ProDOS (Professional Disk Operating System), improved compared to its predecessor, DOS 3.3 order of magnitude of orders of magnitude.

The new system has caused a storm of conflicting emotions in the user community platform, mostly negative – nobody likes to change their habits, especially to sacrifice something. Soon DOS 3.3 was already remembered as a nightmare. ProDOS became the main operating system of the Apple II and remained so from October 1983 to may 1993

Procedure run the program resembled the procedure of engine start in the cold, but it’s strange to our present view – then it was familiar and usually no one is bothered.

General principles of working with AppleWorks

When unknown subject (program, microwave oven, new version of iOS) responds to predictable easy-to-remember set of universal actions, mutual understanding with the subject is achieved simply and with pleasure.

This mini-kit was, and AppleWorks.

IMPORTANT. At this time key has the Apple logo was called the “Open Apple” in the user and in all other documents its name was shortened to “OA”, but that was not required each time to explain what it is, I’ll call her “Apple”. There is no objection? That’s good.

Below is something like a PhraseBook, it is a universal “words”, patterns of action, shared space and phenomena:

  • to select something necessary to move the cursor (using arrow keys) to the desired object on the screen and press Return (carriage return);
  • to return to a higher menu level, the completion of action on something and for other similar situations it is necessary to press the Escape key (escape);
  • the hierarchical menu that is common to all provinces AppleWorks, the main called “Main Menu”, the control center program and the world surrounding it. The position of each menu are numbered, to select either the cursor arrow keys, or typing the number of chosen actions – in both cases the choice is made by pressing the Return;
  • invitations, in response to which it is necessary to print something, or choose from one of suggested alternatives – in this case it is necessary either to select with the arrow keys, or typing the first letter in the name of an alternative – in both cases the choice is made by pressing the Return;
  • the clipboard and Cut&Paste, command system to manage the buffer, simplify and unify the exchange of information between different parts of the program to ugliness;
  • to enter commands, use the keyboard shortcuts Apple – a or Control – letters, not more than one in combination, in the selection of letters tried to make them remember one example of this approach is described in the paragraph about the Cut&Paste, a few: Apple-S (Save, save), Apple-Z (Zoom, zoom) switching the display of any of the enhanced option is reduced and Vice versa.

Really the basic elements a bit more in the “fighting” parts of the program, as necessary, are added other designs, but most importantly: this set of common actions, virtually unchanged, valid in all parts of the program.

The clipboard (Clipboard) and Cut&Paste

The copy process starts, the shortcut Apple-C, and the process of their movement – Apple-M. In the first case, the original data remained in place (copied), in the second they were removed.

Initiating a copy/move is not limited to: the program asked me in which direction you want to copy/move data to the clipboard. The choice is confirmed by pressing the Return or cancelled by pressing Escape.

Where we want to insert the moved or copied in the Clipboard, we repeat the same steps. This time we move the data from the buffer, i.e. “Paste”. If we copy from the buffer, they remain in the buffer. If the roaming – disappear. Not the best option, in my opinion, but if you remember what tricks were made to save RAM and how sick was this issue… We assume that was the right thing to do.

The transmission of information between the different parts of AppleWorks have quirks. Here is how you insert data copied from a spreadsheet or database into a text document? Bans, according to Apple Computer, “not their method.” Laughed, but seriously now: Rupert Lissner was not Apple.

Copied the entry from the database or area with the cells from the spreadsheet before inserting into a text document printed to the clipboard (as if it were a printer) with different settings, that is, suffer a couple of times, it was possible to learn to do it smartly and beautifully.

Menu and desktop

In AppleWorks was a hierarchical menu system (with the main Main Menu at the top), and desktop (Desktop). More and clipboard (Clipboard). Doesn’t look like anything?

There is a cursor, even two of them – blinking vertical bar (the Insert Cursor) and the shimmering rectangle the size of a letter (Overstrike Cursor). Insert and Overstrike – this is from the world of MS DOS. The modes of “insertion” and “replacement”. MS DOS was called Overstrike Overtype, but it’s the same thing. Ins key on the Apple keyboard II was not, it was replaced by the Apple team.

The desktop is not what is called this word in Mac ie AppleWorks is a set of files with which the modes of the program (word processor, database and spreadsheet) work. On the desktop there may be no more than 12.

Menu – how to do without emotion – though called “menu bar” (Menu Bar), but actually takes up the entire screen. If you are not the most important of them, and invested in one or two levels deep, the top and left edges of all parent menu look out over active. Do not get lost.

How are selected the menu command, described above. Either we direct the arrow to the desired position and press Return, or enter the number we are interested in the position, and Return. If caught in the wrong direction, – Escape, and all things. Amazingly, it is even convenient.

In the Main Menu 6 positions, I hope that the story about them you will not get tired and do not discourage the desire to read (or even further).

  • Add files to the desktop
  • To work with files
  • Save the file (changes in files)
  • Delete all files (from the desktop)
  • Other actions
  • To exit the program

To add to your desktop files in several ways and from different sources. The file can be created from scratch or from a file in a supported data format. If the required file is located on floppy disk in any other format than ProDOS, it must first “save” of the old world. AppleWorks only deals with ProDOS.

(Notes in the screenshots autographs Rupert Lissner, 1984)

In addition, on the desktop you can add any of the files in AppleWorks, if necessary, switching disk drives (in the old days of floppy disks called disks) and “ducking” in the subdirectory.

Desk not only simplified the access to the working subset of the files but copied them into RAM, and watched over them and protected them from all troubles, except for force majeure, like an abnormal shutdown of the program, operating system or computer. Recommended regularly, at least every 15 minutes, stored on disk.

The third command menu served just for this. But the menu still need to get for the same you could press Apple-S.

However, this is one of the recommendations to implement that person into my work, the most difficult – almost impossible. How many terabytes of lost users of machines with 64 or 128 of RAM in the computer era of the Paleozoic, it is difficult to imagine. I once lost 5 hours of emergency work… Not on the Apple II, but it was a common problem on all platforms.

The second command opened the list of files on the desktop, and any of them could start.

The fourth and sixth commands did what is written in their name: delete the files from the desktop (for example, to instead add more, they could be only 12) and has completed the program, but before that they worked as the third team. That is offered to save changes in files that are deleted from memory.

Fifth team – other actions – cannot fail to intrigue. Read about it in continuation…

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