Astronomers have discovered the youngest pulsar in the milky Way

Using data obtained by x-ray space Observatory Chandra space Agency NASA, a group of American astronomers has confirmed the presence of the very young pulsar in our galaxy. The discovery may give researchers new data on the evolution of stars. The findings of scientists was published in the Astrophysical journal, reported on the official website of the project “Chandra”.

After a massive star ends hydrogen to sustain fusion reactions, there is a collapse leading to a supernova explosion. As a result of this explosion can occur, a neutron star, representing the balance of the core of an exploded star. Despite their tiny size, these neutron stars have incredible density, and they rotate very quickly and emit bright beams of energy that makes them look like beacons. Scientists on Earth detect these emissions as the pulses – hence the name “pulsars”.

The first pulsars were discovered in 60-ies of the last century. Since then, astronomers have determined the presence of at least 2000 of such facilities. However, many of the mysteries associated with pulsars still remain unsolved. For example, we have not figured out the full range of the diversity of behavior of these strange objects, and also know little about the true nature of the stars which cause them.

New data from the x-ray telescope “Chandra” can clarify some of these issues. A team of astronomers has discovered evidence that within the nebula, which appeared after the explosion of the supernova Kes 75, located approximately 19 000 light years from Earth, is the youngest known pulsar in the milky Way.

Very high speed rotation and very strong magnetic field of an object form a shock wave, a wind of high-energy particles and antimatter, which are carried away from it at a speed close to the speed of light. Powerful pulsory wind creates around Kes 75 is a huge magnetized bubble of highly charged particles — Pulsano nebula (see the image below).

In this composite image of the Kes 75 highly charged particles, observed by “Chandra” is marked blue, they surround the immediate space around the pulsar. Nizkozhirnye particles marked in violet. They are scattered over a much larger distance from the object.

To obtain the final image allowed the analysis of the data collected by “Chandra” in 2000, 2006, 2009 and 2016. These data contained information about how to change the condition and appearance of pulsar nebula. If you believe the calculations, pulsara nebula is expanding at an incredible rate of about 1 million meters per second.

Scientists believe that this incredible speed can be explained by the fact that the nebula expands within relatively less dense environment. More specifically, astronomers believe that it expands inside the gas bubble formed by the collapse of the iron in the discharged gas generated by the explosion of a supernova radioactive Nickel, which in turn further increased the brightness of the supernova. If this is true, then astronomers had a new understanding about the heart of exploding stars, and what the result of this explosion can be formed.

The rate of expansion of the nebula also suggests that the explosion Kes 75 could be observed from Earth about five hundred years ago. Recall that the object is 19 000 light years from us, therefore no real-time monitoring of the question. However, in addition to the data about the supernova of Tycho Brahe (SN 1572) and Kepler’s supernova (SN 1604) no mention of Kes 75 in the historical Chronicles is not detected.

Why Kes 75 was not visible from Earth? Observations of x-ray space telescope “Chandra”, as well as earlier observations by other telescopes indicate that the light of a supernova explosion could be closed from the Ground with a dense concentration of interstellar gas and dust located in the field observations. For scientific instruments of the time light from the supernova was too dull, so they were able to discern.

Astronomers also note that the brightness of the pulsar nebula in the observation period from 2000 to 2016 years decreased by 10 percent and now is mainly concentrated in its Northern region. Such a rapid changes observed pulsar nebula in Kes 75 and its unusual structure point to the need for developing more accurate models of the evolution of pulsar nebulae, the researchers said.

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