Apple and its Unix in a zone of turbulence

What would happen with A/UX in an alternate reality, if, for example, Jean-Louis Gasse left the company in 1990 and would become the head of Apple following the resignation Scully, we’ll never know. The system, after extensive modernization, it could become the basis for future macOS, its potential has not been used on the one-hundredth. But…

In November 1991, Apple’s A/UX 3.0. Before that, A/UX 2.0, A/UX 2.0.1, and A/UX 3.0 has been certified as meeting the requirements of the TCSEC (Department of defense standard, USA, the so-called “Orange book”) for the class C2. This is the penultimate of the six possible levels of security of the operating system, but theoretically now for Apple the path to multimillion-dollar government contracts were opened.

The system now was so much different certificates that she was like the champion of dog contests on the exterior. IEEE POSIX 1003.1-1988, AT&T SVID, ISO 9945-1, FIPS #151-1, and now TCSEC C2.

One of the excuses the political activity of John Scully in 1992, was the work in this direction. Now he had such regard, that cherished dream of the company could become a reality – but no luck. Besides, ten years on the West coast of the United States, could not change his Outlook on life, and all this work could be nothing more than an excuse. He really wanted to become President of the country.

The completion of the cycle. Start here, previous parts here and here.

Complaints and suggestions of customers were taken into account, and ease of installation A/UX 3.0 for a long time had no equal. Some called this process “one-click setup”, but this is hyperbole. If there was AuxStore and 7-year-old adventurer suddenly downloaded this strange thing on your Macintosh IIfx or Macintosh Quadra, writing off from the account of the unsuspecting parents a tidy sum, he would have installed it. If in those days there was a system for online payments.

And could use if it remained alive after an exchange of views with the parents.

There were other improvements, but the most important was the future of this system. It was a mega-super-duper-project, and had a chance publicly declared that received support which was expected with interest and impatience, almost like Copland in a few years.

A month before Apple and IBM announced the creation of the Alliance, and a common strategy to capture the market (POE). A/UX 3.0 played in this strategy an important role.

A/UX 3.0

Presentation of A/UX 3.0 has become one of the highlights of Unix Expo in November 1991, but not in itself, but as the beginning of something big and Grand that, as expected, will change the world and the place of Unices in it.

She A/UX 3.0, too, was interesting, but now it was just the first step to unbearably beautiful “day after tomorrow”. Output “treshki” was scheduled for the first quarter of 1992, and lovely the next day – at the end of 1993 or beginning of 1994.

A/UX 3.0 is still intended for Macs with 68k architecture (new Motorola 68040 for its tactical-technical specifications superior to the best native Intel processors), but in the A/UX 4.0 was promised full support for the PowerPC architecture RISC.

A/UX 3.0 is still based on SVR2.2 (Unix System V release 2.2), but in the A/UX 4.0 was promised to radically update the “Foundation”, replacing SVR2.2 on SVR4. SVR4 is the best option System V at the time, it included fully SVR3, 4.3 BSD, Xenix, and SunOS – adding your own functions.

Still the best release of System V, SVR4.2 was released in October 1992. About a year later.

The fourth command shell (Mac, the other three Bourne, Korn and C, they are also sh, ksh, and csh) in A/UX 3.0 was almost an exact copy of System 7, with some additions. With the menu command “Unix-CLI” to open advanced analog Terminal utility of the current macOS. At any moment the user can request a dialogue assistant, who knew all about the active shell and the parameters of all commands.

If you want you vengeance to use UNIX Ohm, not seeing him at all, and without looking at manuals, man or crib. Bottom line for CLI display to validate and/or inform the user that he introduces – that helped in the development of vocabulary and grammar of the languages of the command line.

To get hold of something in our days in macOS, it would be very nice. Maybe something even already have.

The system can simultaneously execute software for System 7 (all), the program for System 6, which was compatible with System 7 (32-bitno clean) program for a number of Unices, for the X Window – and in the presence of SoftPC and unique – and even DOS 5.0. And Windows 3.0, just Shh! – for latest required license from Microsoft.

Support for the X Window was built into A/UX 3.0, and buy it separately is not required.

A/UX 3.0 was the first operating system with native support for QuickTime.

In the development environment (A/UX Development Tools 1.1) supported by the Mac native implementation of Pascal, C, C++ and 68k assembler. Fortran 77, which was in the A/UX Development Tools 1.0, was removed from the environment. As far as I know, nobody cried. All of these languages have been optimized to work with A/UX.

In addition, the development environment was UNIX, all of the standard marketing tools. And complete sets of tools for developing Mac’ovskogo software (programs, code resources, drivers, etc.), as well as to develop programs for the X Window System (X11), net of UNIX and hybrid programs (Unix+Mac).

In many respects A/UX superior to all operating systems for personal computers, such as System 7 from Apple, Windows and DOS from Microsoft, and OS/2 from IBM. Compared to other Unices A/UX 3.0 looked quite well, and if you remember that it cost three times cheaper superior to all its competitors, even brilliantly.

A/UX 3.0 connect multiple monitors to a single workstation, it worked fine with the Quadra 900 and Quadra 950 (the latter was the most powerful Mac om, taking first place in the Mac IIfx). A/UX 3.0 on a Quadra 950, alas, the performance was inferior to IBM RS/6000 and Sun Sparcstation 2, and where performance was critical, A/UX would be inappropriate. For the same reasons that the Mac IIfx paired with A/UX 2.0.

Beautiful day after tomorrow

PowerOpen Environment, a joint project between Apple and IBM, announced at Unix Expo 1991, suggested a deep mutual integration of the following versions of A/UX and AIX, and the transition to the PowerPC and POWER processors (the product of a consortium consisting of Apple, IBM and Motorola6 which was just created a month ago), with RISC architecture and incredible performance.

Only three years have passed since the presentation of both of these systems, held at the same place and the same hour, on different floors, in 1988.

Now the next versions of both systems were supposed to build around the core OSF/1, making it the system ABI (Application Binary Interface) created PowerOpen Environment.

The future tense means “future in the past”. Just imagine that you in 1991… a few months after August.

Both companies, according to John Scully, will continue to develop their UNIX s and promote them to the market separately… From what we can tell unsaid: it will be de facto related variants of the same system, for different market segments.

Or does it a different system? There is no exact answer, for obvious reasons.

Both systems will meet the standards of POSIX and X/Open.

An Apple spokesperson revealed to the visitors the Unix Expo a terrible secret: Apple Computer still does not play an important role in my the UNIX world, but now, thanks to the PowerPC Alliance with IBM and Motorola and the new strategy, developed jointly by Apple and IBM, it will change.

The IBM representative stated counter compliments, and shared their dreams about how in common with the Apple operating system (still common?) will work on devices of different types and sizes, from PowerBook’s to the IBM RS/6000.

In addition, there were several references to some mysterious company that is trying to take over the world and to submit to his evil will, but now that the good people of a few decent companies have joined forces, the world will be saved.

The real day after tomorrow

Dreams will not come true. The PowerPC platform developed by the consortium AIM, became the basis for Macs and some other computers of different companies, gaming platforms (Apple Pippin and the Microsoft Xbox), surpassed the production volume of Intel processors (though mostly due to embedded processors for various industrial and household devices).

A new enemy of humanity and the Alliance worthy companies, Microsoft (if to call things by their real names), continued the climb to the peak of its power.

And the project PowerOpen and A/UX 4.0 was never implemented. Wikipedia associates the failure of these great initiatives with the invasion of Linux on personal computers, but I have my own version.

In fact, the project PowerOpen +( A/UX + AIX) had a chance if not for the monopolistic grip of the world (which is awful, who would and what are the lofty ideals in the soul of him or standing), competitive confrontation with other players a large variety of the world.

In 1993, Apple changed direction. The new leadership, faced with a new successful competitor (Linux), just raised his hands and shlopotal “A/UX Kaput”.

A/UX 4.0 was never released. The developer team of A/UX, one at a time or in groups, began to get out of Apple. A/UX 3.x never moved to PowerPC. Large heavy UNIX s in emulators not live, she was doomed.

But the system has found temporary work: in the Apple Workgroup Server 90, and 95 based on 68040, specially adapted for them A/UX 3.1 (and 3.1.1) was used until 1995, when purchase the user can choose between A/UX and the standard Mac-native system. In the latter case, is cheaper, and no special advantages A/UX, AWS is not allowed…

In 1995, the project was closed.

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