After WWDC: Eclipse 1988

WWDC 1988 left almost no traces in the “Apple” of the media of the time. There are no mysteries in February of the same year in Dallas, a conference was held Uniforum, she was overshadowed by WWDC. Apple and Unix, 30 years ago?

Apple Computer announced at Uniforum 1988 own Unix-like operating system A/UX. Arch-enemy Apple, progress and humanity, IBM, along with Apple (in a hall two floors above), announced with AIX, its Unix-like system. And yet, it did not escape the attention of journalists, Apple and IBM have shown to each other is of particular interest. Love?

“Relationship” IBM and Apple are worthy of poetry and high prose, they had everything. From hate to love and back. To delve into this topic are not going to postpone it until another time.

Uniforum 1988 was very important for Unix, turning a gradual and almost invisible wide computer mass penetration of Unix and Unix-like systems in the personal computer industry in an open aggressive invasion.

The mystery of birth

There are questions.

First, Apple second half of the 80-ies, no one has been porting Unix to the Mac. This was done by the developers of the operating system for BigMac, one of the most favorite projects of Steve jobs, but his departure has put on this cross. All who had to do with BigMac, in 1985 or left Apple and moved to other projects. Where did the Apple in 1988 took albeit buggy, but real Unix-like system?

Second, the company’s management at this time is still not fully understood the importance of operating system for the well-being of the company. I doubt that John sculley knew about the existence of Unix and Unix-like systems – not to mention the understanding of the significance of these phenomena. Who and when gave the command and has allocated the funding?

With A/UX, I had to interfere several times, but its origin and other details of her fate wasn’t interested – sorry. One of the employees of the company where I worked, was involved in its creation, but he never worked for Apple. I could have so much to learn!

But the answers to these questions could be found without field examination of witnesses.

Start with the answer to the second. A/UX – a product of the nightmare that engulfed Scully and his fellows companions when gone nowhere and depressed Steve jobs founded NeXT Software, and industry rumors about his intention to cross a personal computer with Unix.

At the urgently convened meeting, it was decided to crush the upstart in his field, creating his own, “proper” Unix. With a graphical user interface for the Mac, which really is (whatever has been written in the late 90s, criticism of Apple) wanted almost all industry leaders, and with not quite understandable to the layman, but promising, according to experts, a “superhuman” Unix.

To create a superweapon decided to see a specialist, to the company UniSoft. From 1981 to the late 90s UniSoft made a living porting Unix to various platforms, she didn’t have worthy opponents and took it for their services expensive.

In addition, since 1985 UniSoft has developed for the Open Group the Toolkit to verify compliance Unices with the X/Open standard. In other words, how a particular Unix is actually Unix. Apple had (theoretical) opportunity to capitalize on Federal programs, where the stake was huge sums to approach him, needed Unix with a certificate of compliance to POSIX. Before the news about the plans of Steve jobs, this direction was closed due to the inability of the company to obtain such a certificate, and everything is so well formed.

What and on what terms you agreed Apple Computer and UniSoft, is unknown. Judging by his results, for this Apple Computer could be put “neud”. For UniSoft it was problem like the dozens already done all the pitfalls and everything that could happen during its implementation, employees of UniSoft knew, and the reputation for them was very important.

Contract Unix system with a native Mac interface ought to be completed by July 1987. At UniSoft was not yet familiar with the eccentric lady named Apple, and, most likely, because of the peculiarities of her character and style of doing things has turned out, what happened.

With a delay of 7 months, A/UX 1.0 was announced at the Uniforum 1988. The quality of A/UX was not consistent with normal for UniSoft so that this company didn’t even hurt. All agreed that she is stubbornly and persistently prevented.

In those days, Apple defended its own interests, regardless of anything else, even with their own interests. It is, more than once. Although in the case of A/UX is only a guess. UniSoft has kept the details secret.

Presentation

In February 1988, anyone who was interested, performed a miracle: for the Mac II, in the guise of the most ordinary System 6 (6.0.5), worked as a real Unix. Certification for the title Unix it would not have passed, but it was definitely a Unix-like system, and the applause of the audience was appropriate.

The basis of A/UX was System V, release 2.2 from AT&T. At the end of 1988, AT&T issued a release 4, but apparently UniSoft were any serious reasons not to use the newest release of UNIX novel framework. A/UX was included items of SV5R3 and SV5R4 (version 5, releases 3 and 4), and from 4.2 BSD and 4.3 BSD.

Virtual memory, preemptive multitasking, support for the three command shells (Bourne, C and Korn; they are also sh, csh and ksh) and many more. Real Unix!

In one of the next versions were promised full compatibility with the POSIX standard and the implementation of the X Window System. The promise was fulfilled in the A/UX 1.1, in 1989.

During the demonstration, as expected, the sharp corners have been neatly bypassed. A/UX was shining, the appetite and hope for a great exciting future. Apple in the forefront!

The needs of the “Apple” of UNIX, too, was impressive – it would take at least 4 megabytes of RAM to install the required 80-megabyte disk. Of course, A/UX was required a 68020 and PMMU-68851 coprocessor from Motorola.

Impressive and price: for Mac II with 2 megabytes of RAM (less than the minimum 4 MB – why?) 12-inch black and white monitor, 4 bit video card and 80-megabyte hard disk with a pre-installed A/UX 1.0 requested 8597 $ 1988.

If we subtract from 8597 $ the cost of equipment, the price of A/UX was less than a thousand dollars – commercial UNIX s cost three times more expensive, so impressive the prices could not dampen the enthusiasm.

A little (and few) alarmed some of the highlights of the demonstration: for example, no one never showed several simultaneously operating devices Mac applications. And all that is related of UNIX, showing on one Mac II and Mac’ovsky interface on the other.

When A/UX 1.0 fell into the hands of eager, it was even worse.

Reality

2 megabytes of RAM, A/UX could barely breathe. 4 MB even the most elementary problems caused shortness of breath and often “brasili” system. It was found experimentally that the minimum amount of memory, in which A/UX capable of something, is 8 megabytes.

In 24-bit addressing is the maximum size of RAM that can be used. To install it can be more, but…

When 32-bit addressing the maximum amount of RAM in 1988 was almost endless – 4 gigabytes! There were even pundits, who calculated that the RAM to 4 GB will cause irreparable damage to the ecology of the globe. In a Mac, on which I write this text, RAM twice (sorry, environment), this to me is still not enough.

Other pundits (and I was among them) considered it bad manners to use it to read and to modify values of checkboxes of the memory block written for this API. Where these boxes were located in the “extra” byte of the address, knew everything, possibly even my cat. Because of these wise men, the environment was safe, but on a system with 32-bit addressing mode program-violators stupidly did not work.

And, well, A/UX 1.0 required 32 megabytes. Or at least 16. Then this is the product turned into something working. But it was a “no ice” in UNIX novel part of the number of bugs exceeds the limit. None of the Unices from UniSoft such, probably, was not. On their account, 225 transfers, all can not judge. If this was repeated two or three times, would not have a great reputation.

But bugs in UNIX e nothing compared to the bugs in the “fourth shell” A/UX System 6. And not just with bugs – with the peculiarities of the implementation, so to speak.

To switch between UNIX Ohm and System 6 had to restart the computer. And Woe to you if you forgot to save a work in progress.

At the same time could work only… Could only run one program for the Mac, if you’re lucky. Despite the presence of MultiFinder, system programs, using System 6, which was implemented cooperative multitasking.

Generally, in the System 6. all that I could.

Who is it for?

The initiators of A/UX, seeing how envy competitors on the graphical user interface Macs, believed that Unix this interface will become, if not a bestseller, then at least a good replace all sorts of other UNIX’s, including those that are yet to come out (NeXT).

Alas. In those days, even Steve jobs was wrong more often than allowed. And Scully…

The Unix user A/UX was interesting, but more as a curiosity. They didn’t miss Mac ovskogo of the interface, and to pay for it plus no one wanted. To the same Unix station was significantly more productive (twice at least) and usually cost less than Mac and in a similar configuration.

For the casual user Macs it was overkill. So many unnecessary complications and unnecessary restrictions – and nothing really useful in return.

In addition, the reality of which was not written in the most good-natured articles in the computer press have been too harsh.

The system was sold, in spite of everything – but to speak about serious success, alas, is not necessary.

During the presentation, sculley said that Apple has prepared 100,000 sets with A/UX 1.0 for sale. I doubt that all of these kits have found a buyer. Data on sales of this system. Anyway, I couldn’t find them. Well, if $ 10 were able to sell or donate.

The first version sold really became a A/UX 2.0.

To be continued. In the next series A/UX 2.0, A/UX 3.0, MachTen (a competitor!) and the Apple Workgroup Server.

0 Comments on “After WWDC: Eclipse 1988”

  1. Hey, how’s it going?

    I want to pass along some very important news that everyone needs to hear!

    In December of 2017, Donald Trump made history by recognizing Jerusalem as the captial of Israel Why is this big news? Because by this the Jewish people of Israel are now able to press forward in bringing about the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible

    The Jewish people deny Jesus as their Messiah and have stated that their Messiah has been identified and is waiting to be revealed They say this man will rule the world under a one world religion called “spiritualism”

    They even printed a coin to raise money for the Temple with Donald Trumps face on the front and with king Cyrus'(who built the second Temple) behind him On the back of the coin is an image of the third Temple

    The Bible says this false Messiah who seats himself in the Third Temple will be thee antichrist that will bring about the Great Tribulation, though the Jewish people believe he will bring about world peace It will be a false peace for a period of time You can watch interviews of Jewish Rabbi’s in Israel speaking of these things They have their plans set in place It is only years away!

    More importantly, the power that runs the world wants to put a RFID microchip in our body making us total slaves to them This chip matches perfectly with the Mark of the Beast in the Bible, more specifically Revelation 13:16-18:

    He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name

    Here is wisdom Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666

    Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards Otherwise, we could still buy or sell without the mark amongst others if physical money was still currency RFID microchip implant technology will be the future of a one world cashless society containing digital currency It will be implanted in the right-hand or the forehead, and we cannot buy or sell without it! We must grow strong in Jesus AT ALL COSTS, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name ” (Revelation 14:9-11)

    People have been saying the end is coming for many years, but we need two key things One, the Third Temple, and two, the technology for a cashless society to fulfill the prophecy of the Mark of the Beast

    VISIT WWW BIBLEFREEDOM COM TO SEE PROOF FOR THESE THINGS AND MUCH MORE! TELL YOUR FRIENDS AND FAMILY SHARE THIS MESSAGE!

  2. Hey, how’s it going?

    I want to pass along some very important news that everyone needs to hear!

    In December of 2017, Donald Trump made history by recognizing Jerusalem as the captial of Israel Why is this big news? Because by this the Jewish people of Israel are now able to press forward in bringing about the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible

    The Jewish people deny Jesus as their Messiah and have stated that their Messiah has been identified and is waiting to be revealed They say this man will rule the world under a one world religion called “spiritualism”

    They even printed a coin to raise money for the Temple with Donald Trumps face on the front and with king Cyrus'(who built the second Temple) behind him On the back of the coin is an image of the third Temple

    The Bible says this false Messiah who seats himself in the Third Temple will be thee antichrist that will bring about the Great Tribulation, though the Jewish people believe he will bring about world peace It will be a false peace for a period of time You can watch interviews of Jewish Rabbi’s in Israel speaking of these things They have their plans set in place It is only years away!

    More importantly, the power that runs the world wants to put a RFID microchip in our body making us total slaves to them This chip matches perfectly with the Mark of the Beast in the Bible, more specifically Revelation 13:16-18:

    He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name

    Here is wisdom Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666

    Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards Otherwise, we could still buy or sell without the mark amongst others if physical money was still currency RFID microchip implant technology will be the future of a one world cashless society containing digital currency It will be implanted in the right-hand or the forehead, and we cannot buy or sell without it! We must grow strong in Jesus AT ALL COSTS, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name ” (Revelation 14:9-11)

    People have been saying the end is coming for many years, but we need two key things One, the Third Temple, and two, the technology for a cashless society to fulfill the prophecy of the Mark of the Beast

    VISIT WWW BIBLEFREEDOM COM TO SEE PROOF FOR THESE THINGS AND MUCH MORE! TELL YOUR FRIENDS AND FAMILY SHARE THIS MESSAGE!

  3. Hey, how’s it going?

    I want to pass along some very important news that everyone needs to hear!

    In December of 2017, Donald Trump made history by recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel Why is this big news? Because by this the Jewish people of Israel are now able to press forward in bringing about the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible

    Jewish Rabbis have publicly announced that their Messiah will be revealed in the coming years who will be a leader and spiritual guide to all nations, gathering all religions under the worship of one God

    Biblical prophecy tells us that this Jewish Messiah who will take the stage will be the antichrist “who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God” (2 Thessalonians 2:4) For a time he will bring about a false peace, but “Therefore when you see the ‘abomination of desolation,’ spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (Matthew 24:15) then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matthew 24:21)

    More importantly, the power that runs the world wants to put a RFID microchip in our body making us total slaves to them This chip matches perfectly with the Mark of the Beast in the Bible, more specifically in Revelation 13:16-18:

    “He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name

    Here is wisdom Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666 ”

    Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards Otherwise, we could still buy or sell without the mark amongst others if physical money was still currency This Mark couldn’t be spiritual because the word references two different physical locations If it was spiritual it would just say in the forehead RFID microchip implant technology will be the future of a one world cashless society containing digital currency It will be implanted in the right-hand or the forehead, and we cannot buy or sell without it Revelation 13:11-18 tells us that a false prophet will arise on the world scene doing miracles before men, deceiving them to receive this Mark Do not be deceived! We must grow strong in Jesus AT ALL COSTS, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    “Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name” (Revelation 14:9-11)

    People have been saying the end is coming for many years, but we needed two key things One, the Third Temple, and two, the technology for a cashless society to fulfill the prophecy of the Mark of the Beast

    Visit WWW BIBLEFREEDOM COM to see proof for these things and why the Bible truly is the word of God!

    If you haven’t already, it is time to seek God with all your heart Jesus loves you more than you could imagine He wants to have a relationship with you and redeem you from your sins Turn to Him and repent while there is still hope! This is forever God bless!

    “EITHER HUMAN INTELLIGENCE ULTIMATELY OWES ITS ORIGIN TO MINDLESS MATTER OR THERE IS A CREATOR ” – JOHN LENNOX

    We all know God exists Why? Because without Him, we couldn’t prove anything at all Do we live our lives as if we cannot know anything? No So why is God necessary? In order to know anything for certain, you would have to know everything, or have revelation from somebody who does Who is capable of knowing everything? God So to know anything, you would have to be God, or know God

    A worldview without God cannot account for the uniformity and intelligibility of nature And why is it that we can even reason that God is the best explanation for this if there is no God? We are given reason to know or reject God, but never to know that He does not exist

    It has been calculated by Roger Penrose that the odds of the initial conditions for the big bang to produce the universe that we see to be a number so big, that we could put a zero on every particle in the universe, and even that would not be enough to use every zero What are the odds that God created the universe? Odds are no such thing Who of you would gamble your life on one coin flip?

    Is there evidence that the Bible is the truth? Yes Did you know that the creation accounts listed in the book of Genesis are not only all correct, but are also in the correct chronological order? That the Bible doesn’t say the Earth was formed in six 24-hour days but rather six long but finite periods of time? That the Bible makes 10 times more creation claims than all major “holy” books combined with no contradictions, while these other books have errors in them? The Bible stood alone by concurring with the big bang saying, “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” (Genesis 1:1); and says our universe is expanding, thousands of years before scientists discovered these things Watch a potential life-changing video on the website listed below with Astronomer(PhD) Hugh Ross explaining all these facts based on published scientific data He has authored many books, backed even by atheist scientists

    Jesus came to pay a debt that we could not; to be our legal justifier to reconcile us back to a Holy God; only if we are willing to receive Him: “For the wages of sin is death ” (Romans 6:23)

    God so loved the world that He gave us His only begotten son, so that whoever believes in Him, through faith, shall not perish, but have everlasting life Jesus says if we wish to enter into life to keep the commands! The two greatest commands are to love God with all your heart, soul, strength, and mind; and your neighbor as yourself All the law hang on these commands We must be born of and lead by the Holy Spirit, to be called children of God, to inherit the kingdom If we are willing to humble ourselves in prayer to Jesus, to confess and forsake our sins, He is willing to give the Holy Spirit to those who keep asking of Him; giving us a new heart, leading us into all truth!

    Jesus came to free us from the bondage of sin The everlasting fire was prepared for the devil and his angels due to disobedience to God’s law If we do the same, what makes us any different than the devil? Jesus says unless we repent, we shall perish For sin is the transgression of the law We must walk in the Spirit so we may not fulfill the lusts of the flesh, being hatred, fornication, drunkenness and the like Whoever practices such things will not inherit the kingdom (Galatians 5:16-26) If we sin, we may come before Jesus to ask for forgiveness (1 John 2:1-2) Evil thoughts are not sins, but rather temptations It is not until these thoughts conceive and give birth by our own desires that they become sin (James 1:12-15) When we sin, we become in the likeness of the devil’s image, for he who sins is of the devil (1 John 3:8); but if we obey Jesus, in the image of God For without holiness, we shall not see the Lord (Hebrews 12:14)

    The oldest religion in the world is holiness through faith (James 1:27) What religion did Adam and Eve follow before the fall? Jesus, Who became the last Adam, what religion does He follow? Is He not holy? He never told us to follow the rituals and traditions of man but to take up our cross and follow Him (Luke 9:23) There are many false doctrines being taught leading people astray This is why we need the Holy Spirit for discernment Unlike religion, holiness cannot be created It is given to us from above by the baptism of the Spirit Jesus is more than a religion; He is about having a personal relationship with the Father Start by reading the Gospel of Matthew, to hear the words of God, to know His character and commandments Follow and obey Jesus, for He is the way, the truth, and the life!

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