About “the Apple”-6. Newton, part 4: believe Time has passed

By the time of the announcement of the release date Newton (2 April 1992) the project has existed for three years, during which the user fantasized and dreamed, and engineers sought and found a brilliant solution, combining the fact that it is impossible to connect. Scully, turning the project into “combat mode”, declared the three years of his “research phase”.

That has been achieved in the framework of the project exceeded the existing in the nascent industry PDA for many years. It was a fantastic shot power. If he had hit the target, this could be a turning point in the history of human civilization. But no one thought not only “aim”, but even to determine what is this goal.

Well, Scully thought about himself and his role in history.

John sculley decided to change the world (starting with ourselves)

Scully suddenly wondered what he does on the Apple Computer. Indeed, if the management of daily operations of the company with a turnover of billions of dollars and a staff of ten thousand people didn’t took that much time and effort does the project Newton would have been on the verge of death?

Maybe he was just tired. In 1988, he was appointed COO (operations Manager) dela Yakoma the head of the Pacific office of the company and took all the control in their hands. On dela complained of head of departments and areas – that prevent them to work their corrosive and meticulous. The position of this.

And now, combining the two posts (as General secretaries of the CPSU Central Committee has combined his post with a post of the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR), he saw that, despite his considerable efforts, the company more and more out of control and goes bad.

And then, what should the head of the company – development strategy, vision and objectives of the company, to continue to Shine a promising project, neither time nor strength was left. The same Newton, it was possible already to make it a bestseller…

On all projects of significance, all final decisions are made by the head of the company. And the future does not care that the head of the company did not have sufficient time to better understand what it verdict.

So John sculley, decided to restore the company post COO, and even to expand its powers. Think about it, this post he appointed Michael Spindler.

And why not? Spindler did not seek to lead the company, he is honest and well performed the work entrusted to him, showed himself as a brilliant strategist, and even visited the first Deputy from dela Yakoma when he was COO. If Spindler though something didn’t meet the stringent requirements of dela, he never would have become silent.

A few points I do not quite understand: first, about the same as the Prime Minister in the government of the Russian Federation or Vice-President if the President ceases to control it, COO automatically becomes the acting head of the company.

And very likely the Board of Directors (not to look for a new head of the company with the help of expensive special agencies top staff) will adopt, acting in his position. Have you thought about it Scully?

It took several months for the transfer of cases and occurrences in Spindler, John sculley gave the newly minted COO at the helm of the company. Spindler coped well, nobody has complained. On COO! This Scully paid no attention. It in the second.


Now Scully was doing only three projects:

  • Newton;
  • Pink (the new operating system, the fate of which is strikingly similar to the fate of the Newton project – great ideas, brilliant engineers, the endless fantasies of leadership and infinite delay, in the end it came to nothing);
  • The presidential campaign of bill Clinton.

To engage in the time of someone else’s presidential campaign – this is, I think, overkill. The annual compensation of John sculley as Apple was set at $ 2.5 million, in 1983. Then it was the highest compensation of the CEO in the Silicon valley.

Of course, in this campaign, he has delivered speeches on various actions of the presidential candidate, mentioning the case about Apple Computer and its projects. Many of his speeches were broadcast all over America, as commercials like “1984” and “Lemmings” in 1985, at the Prime time, and the company is not worth a penny – but nevertheless…

Especially the fact that in early 1992, has performed all over America, rather hurt the company. But more on that later. Until we have the end of 1990 and beginning of 1991 the Project Newton suddenly found himself at the focus of the company.

Larry Tesler headed the Newton project

Larry Tesler, who Scully was asked to look for something valuable in the ruins of the Newton project was not at that time an employee of Apple Computer. He was the Apple Mate, it’s such a fun honorific title (literally “the Apple Man”), which were assigned to people and which provide Apple any serious invaluable services. Like, in addition to honor and respect the title no favors is not allowed.

But to outsiders for Apple, he also was not. From 1980 to 1985 he worked for the company in the position of Vice President for AppleNet, and then Vice President at ATG (advanced technologies group, research division of the company. He oversaw the project and Lisa had a hand in creating the Mac.

Telling Scully that he found the developers Newton, Larry Tesler was asked to head this project. The position was vacant. Scully suggested Teszler his former position of Vice President at ATG. The Newton project was in direct submission of the head of ATG, and the project had high priority status.

Larry Tesler began his career at Xerox PARC where anyone anyhow don’t take. Research center Xerox was both the place where lived the future, and a source of manpower for different fields of IT, and not only IT, the U.S. and beyond.

In 1979, during the historic visit of Steve jobs, JEF Raskin and a few employees of Apple Computer to Xerox PARC Larry Tesler was one of the “guides”.

At Xerox PARC he began with development of a word processor along with a Gypsy man named Tim Mott. For the early ‘ 70s it was very unusual word processor. In those days, programs of similar purpose already existed, but no one could use any of them without careful documentation. An example of such a word processor from our recent past – the Lexicon. There are examples in the present – the subject of worship of many unitsystem Emacs also applies to them.

If it is good to learn the Vocabulary or Emacs (this is about as easy as learning to read and write), they are even better than current word processors and editors.

Word processor Gypsy was, most likely, the first word processor that did not require reading of textbooks and the compulsory memorizing of keyboard shortcuts. These combinations in Gypsy was, but only duplicate functionality available and intuitive manner.

In Gypsy, most likely, also for the first time in the history of computer programs, was applied Copy/Paste. Larry Tesler and Tim Mott are considered the inventors of Copy/Paste.

It was the word processor of the present, by some miracle, caught in the middle of 70-ies of the last century.

And he participated in the development of Smalltalk, the group of Alan Kay, the same one Apple Mate that to better understand some of his thoughts with John sculley “invented Knowledge Navigator“.

After 5 years at Apple, Larry went into free flight.

Together with Niklaus Wirth (author of Pascal and Modula other programming languages), developed object-oriented extension of Pascal, the result is called ObjectPascal. In addition, Larry was one of the key creators of MacApp, one of the first in the world of class libraries “on the contrary”.

Conventional libraries have been involved in a program to extend its functionality. Part of the class libraries “on the contrary” is the assembled frame ready program, able to run, display, familiar user interface, menu and window (in the environment where they are) and all that. The programmer makes generic blank application in public useful, if simplified, substituting your own code in the right place of the frame. In addition, the class libraries “on the contrary” there are blanks to create different program objects, and even classes entirely ready to work.

Something like this in our day arranged class libraries for all operating systems with a graphical user interface. MacApp was one of the first such libraries in the world.

ObjectPascal and MacApp become part of the product line Apple Computer. In ObjectPascal felt handwriting Teszler is probably the most simple object-oriented language in the world, everything is clear without a tutorial, just enough to see the examples and try. And, despite its simplicity, this was a serious tool…

Project Newton, “there will be only one!”

New life began with an unsolvable conflict. In the third part of the brief content of the plan, TCO at the conclusion of the Newton to market. Planned phased withdrawal to the market three models, differing in size, price and range of functions: Newton Senior Newton Middle (designed two models, how they differ one from the other, unknown) and Newton Junior.

As soon as the appointed time of the release of Newton, it became clear that to do only one option, and no “next year/two” is also not necessary, time to be with one… in the Saga of the Immortals, “there can be only one!”.

Both Middle’s refused, easily and immediately. And then the opinions were divided. Engineers and marketers have been proposed focusing on Junior. Larry Tesler insisted on a Senior because he’s powerful because of a certain number of Senior s it would be possible to create a whole network of mutually communicating (infrared signals) of the devices. For him the most important in the project were used in this technology.

Marketers much more worried about the viability of the product in the market.

In rooms lit with fluorescent lights, the reception of infrared radiation is difficult to almost impossible. That is for the use of networks of Newton Senior throughout corporate America have to put out the light?

But no arguments have not acted. The situation Larry was in charge of the disputants, and although they were in the numerical majority, his opinion threatened to become law.

The Newton project was saved by an appeal to Scully (even if Senior, in the end, fell out of would market, it would be much more sad fate than Newton MP of our branches history).

One day, TCHO and Scully together was flying on a private LearJet’e Mike Markkula, and on the way TCO, over a glass of luxury wine from Napa Valley, explained the situation to the head of the company. The meeting was held at altitude. At ten thousand kilometers. Helped.

Larry was forced to concede. Some almost live layouts Newton Senior still gathering dust somewhere in the basement of the Apple campus, with sleeping for many years by the hobbits under the hood. And Newton Junior was from that moment called the Newton MessagePad.

There was only one. And began the transformation Junior MessagePad.

To be continued.

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