10 things a black hole

We just wrote about the ability of black holes to absorb almost any matter in the Universe. However, lately science has been able to discover a whole Arsenal of other various features of these objects. It turns out that not only can they move almost at the speed of light and to show signs of real space killers, destroying and devouring everything in its path, but also to demonstrate a much more flexible behavior than we are accustomed to expect from them. Today let’s talk about what else can these objects.

Very fast spin

Scientists for the first time precisely measured the rotation speed of a supermassive black hole. It affects 84% of the speed of light.

The black hole of the galaxy NGC 1365, located 60 million light-years have amazed researchers with their characteristics. Its diameter is 3.2 million kilometers and its mass is approximately equal to several million solar masses.

When rotating, it literally warps not only space but also time, creating a blazing maelstrom of x-ray radiation, gas and dust falling into its depths. This whole matter, most likely, falls into a black hole from one direction, according to scientists, gives her such incredible speed.

Join groups

The biggest of astronomers discovered galaxies literally seeded supermassive black holes. They are so huge that scientists doubt that their progenitors are single stars. Scientists have long suspected that supermassive black holes can be born in dense star clusters consisting of groups of the dying binary stars or groups of more compact black holes, which eventually merge together to form these supergiants.

Interestingly, the assumption finally found a real confirmation. X-ray analysis of the center of the milky Way showed that directly in the center of our galaxy hides a very tight area, which can be up to 12 black holes rotating around a main Central black hole of the milky Way – Sagittarius A*.

In addition, the analysis showed that in total, the Central region of our galaxy can be located up to 20,000 black holes.

To throw matter the size of Jupiter (sometimes in our direction)

Theoretical calculations and computer modeling suggests that near the Central black hole of our galaxy – Sagittarius A* — can be a very massive star that every 10 thousand years is approaching very close to the hole, which last pulls out her finest substance, forming a long stream of red-hot matter. Part of this material is eaten up by the hole, and the other is ejected into space. However, some of this material remains relatively remote from the hole a distance and is able to merge into a ball the size of a planet. But the most interesting is not even that.

These clubs matter, in some cases, the size of our Neptune, and sometimes reaching the size of Jupiter, released in galactic space at a speed of 3.2 – 32.2 million kilometers per hour. According to the calculations of researchers, the developments of tidal destruction of stars in the cosmos will be thrown about 100 million such phone And maybe some of them will be aimed in our direction.

Hide galactic past

A complex of radio telescopes “Techniques large antenna array of millimeter range” (ALMA) has enabled scientists for the first time, to look well tor the black hole – accumulation of dust and gas revolving around the “mouth” of the galactic monster from the side reminiscent of a doughnut.

The object of the study is 47 million light-years away in the constellation Cetus. Thanks to the amazing power and sensitivity of ALMA, scientists have even calculated its width. It is about 20 light years. Watching tori black holes, the researchers can learn more about the past of galaxies. For example, the asymmetrical shape of the torus suggests that the galaxy might merge with another galaxy at some period of its history in the past.

Absorb matter with incredible speed

In a billion light-years away toward the constellation coma Berenices is a very bright galaxy PG211+143. Its brightness galaxy owes the Central black hole, which absorbs matter from outer space with incredible speed of 100,000 kilometers per second.

The researchers found that the x-ray emission of this galaxy shows significant redshift, which can be explained by the motion of matter the galaxy straight into the side of the Central supermassive black hole with enormous speed about 30 percent of the speed of light. This gas is almost not rotating around the black hole, and moves directly to the center in a straight line, being incredibly close to the black hole the distance of only 20 dimensions black hole.

To wander the cosmos

Astronomers long assumed that black holes can sometimes be ejected from their galaxies. And very strong evidence of this assumption, as it turned out, is about 8 billion light years from us. It is quasar 3C 186, having a mass of one billion solar.

Scientists discovered that the quasar on all pairs tend to leave their native galactic cluster. According to calculations, the gas cloud quasar is carried away at a speed of 7.6 million kilometers per hour. At this speed, for example, from the earth to the moon can be reached in just 3 minutes.

Astronomers believe that the reason for this “escape” the gravitational waves are the product of the merger of two supermassive black holes. As a result of this merger, they created a powerful shock wave, strength comparable to the simultaneous explosion of 100 million supernova, which literally pushed the quasar with his “familiar” places.

To steal from larger relatives

At the moment, astronomers not only confirmed the five events mergers of black holes and of the produced gravitational waves, but also singled out one of them, stand out from the crowd. We are talking about the merger of two black holes whose mass according to the forecasts, was supposed to be 10-15 solar. In fact, it turned out that the mass of both black holes is more than 20 solar masses.

After analyzing the collected data the scientists came to the conclusion that both black holes have gained weight due to the fact that stealing “food” from a much bigger black hole, located in the neighborhood of the galactic center.

Before becoming a black hole these thieves were the two massive stars. In the course of stellar evolution, they collapsed into black holes and began to gravitate towards the galactic center, where there were already supermassive black hole, absorbing the surrounding gas and dust. Two “crumbs” have managed to steal part of the matter from the Central black hole and scored almost three times more mass from its original size before merge with each other.

To use magnetic fields for food

According to astronomers, one of the main factors that determine the black hole mass can be its magnetic field. Exploring the galaxy, Cygnus A, located 600 million light years away, scientists have discovered in its galactic center is very strong magnetic field.

Further analysis showed that the black hole of Cygnus A is very active. Scientists believe that it is the most powerful extragalactic radio source in its constellation, which is created as a result of absorption of a hole in the surrounding matter. In this case, the researchers say, involved the active participation of its magnetic field, which attracts matter to the Torah of the black hole, and then into the subsoil.

According to astronomers, the difference between active galaxies such as Cygnus A, and inactive galaxies such as our milky Way, lies in the presence and absence of magnetic field.

To hide in tiny galaxies

In the galaxy Fornax UCD3 in the constellation Oven is only 100 million stars. This is a real baby compared to the same Milky Way, which presumably can be hundreds of billions of stars. The radius of the galaxy Fornax UCD3 is only some 300 light-years. Despite its tiny size, “ultra-compact dwarf” UCD3 is one of the densest galaxies in the Universe.

At its center is a supermassive black hole with 3 to 5 million solar masses. She is almost as heavy as the black hole Sagittarius a* at the center of our milky Way, whose diameter is about 150,000 light years.

The discovery of a black hole UCD3 was only the fourth case of the detection of supermassive black holes within ultra-compact galaxies. Astronomers have calculated that the share of the holes accounts for 4 percent of the total mass of the galaxy. Usually in any other case, this share is only 0.3 percent.

Scientists suspect that early galaxy UCD3 was more, but the proximity to a larger galaxy Fornax UCD3 has deprived large numbers of its stars, turning to the dwarf.

To eat our Sun for two days

Astronomers have discovered an amazingly voracious black hole, born about 12 billion years ago. Discovered quasar every other day absorbs the mass equivalent to one solar. Because of this appetite, the black hole is growing so fast that its radiation is thousands of times brighter than an entire galaxy. The radiation occurs due to heating of matter and gases, which it absorbs.

Scientists do not yet understand how the black hole of the “dark ages” so rapidly has gained her a lot, but understands its potential.

If that monster was in the center of our milky Way, its brightness exceeded 10 times the brightness of the full moon in the sky. The object would be so bright that it eclipsed the light of the larger number of stars in the sky, and would have killed us all his x-rays.

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